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 :Parts of Sentences:

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PostSubject: :Parts of Sentences:   Wed Feb 18, 2009 2:46 pm

1. Sentence - a group of words that expresses a complete thought. Every sentence contains a subject and predicate.

    Subject: the noun or noun phrase that tells whom or what the sentence addresses.
      -Roger decided to save more money.
      -Almost all cats dislike water.

    Full or complete subject: the subject and all the words that modify it.
      -Patrick Henry's dream of freedom for all citizens compelled him to make his famous declaration.

    Simple Subject: the main noun of the complete subject.
      -Patrick Henry's dream of freedom for all citizens compelled him to make his famous declaration.

    Compound Subject: a complete subject with multiple simple subjects.
      -Miguel and the young boy became friends.


2. Predicate: a verb or verb phrase telling what the subject does or is:
    Full or complete predicate: the verb of the sentence and all of the words that modify it.
      -The old dog climbs slowly up the stairs.

    Simple Predicate: the main verb in the full predicate that indicates the action or state of being of the simple subject.
      -The old dog climbs slowly up the stairs.

    Compound Predicate: a complete predicate with multiple verbs.
      -He thought of his lower and missed her dearly.
      -The goose was looking straight ahead and running ahead and running for the pond.


3. Clause: a part of a sentence that contains its own subject and predicate.
    Independent clause: a clause that could function as its own sentence.
      - When the Mets are palying, the stadium is full.

    Dependent clause: a clause that cannot function as its own sentence. A dependent clause relies on an independent clause to complete its meaning.
    A dependent clause can function as a noun,
      -I realized that I owed Patrick fifty dollars.
      as an adverb,
      -When the Mets are playing, the stadium is full.
      or as an adjective.
      -The beef that I ate for dinner made me queasy.

    Elliptical clause: a type of dependent clause with a subject and verb that are implied rather than expressed.
      -Though unhappy, she still smiled.
      In the clause Though unhappy, the subject and verb she was are implied: Although (she was) unhappy.


4. Phrase: a group of related words without a subject or predicate.
    Noun phrase: a phrase that acts as a noun. A noun phrase can function as a subject,
      -The snarling dog strained against its chain.
      object,
      -He gave her the book of poems.

    prepositional object,
      -The acrobat fell into the safety net.

    gerund phrase,
      -Dancing the tango is a popular activity in Argentina.

    or infinitive phrase,
      -To dream is to be human.

    Adjective phrase: a phrase that modifies nouns or pronouns. Participial phrases and many prepositional phrases are adjective phrases.
      -The actor playing Puck left much to be desired.

    Adverb phrase: a phrase that begins with a preposition, and that functions as an adverb.
      -The theater was crowded with the actor's fans.

    Prepositional phrase: a phrase made up of a preposition, its object, and its modifiers.
      -The roof of the old theater was leaking badly.


5. Modifier: a word or phrase that modifies or adds information to other parts of a sentence. Adjectives, adverbs, and many phrases and clauses are modifiers.
    Limiting modifier: a word or phrase that limits the scope or degree of an idea. Words like almost, only, or barely are modifiers.
      -It was almost time for dinner.

    Restricting modifier: a phrase or clause that restricts the meaning of what it modifies and is necessary to the idea of its sentence.
      -Any dog that has not had it shots should be taken to a veterinarian immediately.

    Nonrestricting modifier: a modifier that adds information but is not necessary to the sentence. Commas, dashes, or parentheses set apart nonrestricting modifiers.
      -Seventeenth-century poets, many of whom were also devout Christians, wrote excellent poetry.
      -We could hear the singing bird-a wren, perhaps, or a robin-throughout the forest.
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